Nadie escapa a su destino historico.

17 abril, 2010

Mi esposa y yo.

Esta es una foto que nos tiramos, ayer a las seis de la tarde, en Miami, donde fui a visitar mi medico cubanoamericano y otro familiar de mi esposa que casualmente es medico tambien, aunque graduado en Cuba. Vivimos en Sarasota donde mi ambiente laboral es totalmente anglo, con ancestros en Irlanda del Norte, de manera que en Miami sientes algo asi como si en tres hora hubieras viajado a Cuba, y alli, no se hace mas que hablar de Cuba, de los cubanos que vienen de Cuba, de los cubanos que se fueron o los que se van de visitas a Cuba y la competencia, especie de blason de nobleza, de quien viaja mas a Cuba, quien lleva mas maletas de regalos, de manera que regresas a Sarasota, a tres horas de Miami y a 45 minutos de Tampa con el complejo de culpa de no tener una historia sobre un viaje reciente a Cuba, aunque sea por diez dias. Cuando llegue a Miami por el Palmetto, apague el aire acondicionado del carro y abri la ventanilla. Mi mujer me dijo: “eres como los perros, que tienen que viajar con la cabeza afuera”, y yo le conteste: “No, mi amor, es que aqui el aire tiene la pastosidad del de Cuba y quiero sentirlo otra vez”

Sa a se yon foto nou pou nou fwape yè nan sis è nan aprè midi a nan Miami, kote mwen te vizite doktè m ak yon lòt fanmi Kiben yo de madanm mwen ki li menm tou k ap pase yo dwe medikal, men gradye nan Kiba. Nou ap viv nan Sarasota ki kote anviwònman travay mwen an se totalman Anglo ansèt nan Nò Iland, pou ke nan Miami ou santi yon bagay tankou ou nan twa èdtan ta gen vwayaje nan Kiba, e la, men se pa sou Kiba, nan Kiben yo soti nan Kiba, Kiben yo ki te kite yo oubyen sa yo ki ale nan vizit nan Kiba ak konpetisyon, yon sòt de badj ki rich, ki te vwayaje nan Kiba, ki te gen plis sachè kado, pou ou retounen nan Sarasota, Miami, twa zè ak 45 minit nan Tampa ak konplèks la koupab nan pa gen ankenn istwa sou yon vwayaj ki resan nan Kiba, menm pou dis jou. Lè ou rive nan Miami Palmetto pa la, fèmen èkondisyone nan machin nan ak louvri fenèt la. Madanm mwen te di m: “Ou se tankou chen, ki te vwayaje ak tèt li deyò”, e mwen reponn: “Non, mwen renmen, se ke isit la lè la gen douser nan Kiba e mwen santi mwen li ankò”

My wife and me.
This is a picture that we hit yesterday at six o’clock in the afternoon in Miami, where I visited my doctor and another Cuban family of my wife who also happens to be medical, but graduated in Cuba. We live in Sarasota where my work environment is totally Anglo ancestry in Northern Ireland, so that in Miami you feel something like you in three hours would have traveled to Cuba, and there, but it is not about Cuba, the Cubans come from Cuba, the Cubans who left or those who go on visits to Cuba and competition, a sort of badge of nobility, who traveled to Cuba, who has more gift bags, so you return to Sarasota, Miami three hours and 45 minutes from Tampa with the guilt complex of having no story about a recent trip to Cuba, even for ten days. When you get to Miami by the Palmetto, turn off air conditioning in the car and opened the window. My wife told me: “You are like dogs, who have to travel with his head outside,” and I answered: “No, my love, is that here the air has the mellowness of Cuba and I feel it again”

Ma femme et moi.
C’est une image que nous avons atteint hier à six heures du soir à Miami, où j’ai rendu visite à mon médecin et une autre famille cubaine de ma femme qui se trouve être également médicale, mais a obtenu à Cuba. Nous vivons dans Sarasota où mon environnement de travail est totalement ascendance anglo en Irlande du Nord, de sorte que, dans Miami vous ressenti quelque chose comme vous en trois heures aurait voyagé à Cuba, et là, mais ce n’est pas à propos de Cuba, le Cubains viennent de Cuba, les Cubains qui ont quitté ou ceux qui vont en visite à Cuba et de la concurrence, une sorte de signe de noblesse, qui ont voyagé à Cuba, qui a plus de sacs-cadeaux, si vous revenez à Sarasota, Miami trois heures et 45 minutes de Tampa avec le complexe de culpabilité de ne pas avoir l’histoire d’un récent voyage à Cuba, même pour dix jours. Lorsque vous arrivez à Miami par le Palmetto, éteignez la climatisation dans la voiture et ouvrit la fenêtre. Ma femme m’a dit: “Vous êtes comme des chiens, qui ont pour Voyage avec la tête en dehors, et je répondis:« Non, mon amour, c’est qu’ici l’air a le moelleux de Cuba et je le sens à nouveau ”

 Minha esposa e eu.
Esta é uma foto que bateu ontem às seis da tarde em Miami, onde visitei o meu médico de família cubana e outra da minha esposa que também acontece para ser médica, mas formou-se em Cuba. Vivemos em Sarasota, onde o meu ambiente de trabalho é totalmente Anglo ascendência na Irlanda do Norte, de modo que em Miami se sente algo parecido com você em três horas teria viajado para Cuba, e ali, mas não se trata de Cuba, o Os cubanos vêm de Cuba, os cubanos que abandonaram ou aqueles que vão em visitas a Cuba e à concorrência, uma espécie de emblema da nobreza, que viajou a Cuba, que tem mais sacos de presentes, para que retornar ao Sarasota, Miami três horas e 45 minutos de Tampa com o complexo de culpa de não ter nenhuma história sobre uma viagem recente a Cuba, mesmo que por dez dias. Quando você chegar em Miami pela Palmetto, desligue o ar condicionado no carro e abriu a janela. Minha esposa me disse: “Vocês são como os cães, que têm de viajar com a cabeça lá fora”, e eu respondi: “Não, meu amor, é que aqui o ar tem a delicadeza de Cuba e sinto-me outra vez”
 

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Hernan Cortez en Mejico pudo haber combatido contra descendientes de chinos.

17 noviembre, 2014

Hernan Cortez y Moctezuma.

Hernan Cortez y Moctezuma.

por Gualterio Nunez Estrada
Hace varios anos visitando una tienda de articulos de China, aqui en Sarasota, Florida, donde vivimos, descubrimos libros de Historia del Arte donde se mostraban en fotografias las similitudes entre el arte precolombino de Mexico y el de China, hoy nosotros leemos en CRI online (Radio China Internacional)http://espanol.cri.cn/782/2014/11/15/1s332432.htm que los circulos academicos de Mejico consideran que la civilizacion maya que se extendio hasta Georgia, Estados Unidos, pudo formarse a partir de una migracion china de hace dos mil anos http://espanol.cri.cn/782/2014/11/15/1s332432.htm . Lo cierto es que los mexicanos anteriores a esa fecha no se parecen en nada a los actuales, segun los arqueologos.http://sipse.com/milenio/cenotes-hallazgos-arqueologicos-peninsula-de-yucatan-datos-hombre-americano-122310.html

El jade fue un simbolo de civilizacion de las elites chinas y mayas.

El jade fue un simbolo de civilizacion de las elites chinas y mayas.

Mascara de jade maya.

Mascara de jade maya.

by Walter Nunez Estrada
Several years ago visiting a store of items from China, here in Sarasota, Florida, where we live, we discovered art history books where photographs were displayed on the similarities between the pre-Columbian art from Mexico and China, now we read in CRI online (China Radio International) http://espanol.cri.cn/782/2014/11/15/1s332432.htm the academic circles of Mexico considered that the Mayan civilization was formed from a Chinese migration of two thousand years http://espanol.cri.cn/782/2014/11/15/1s332432.htm. The fact is that prior to that date Mexicans not look anything like the current, according to thearqueologos.http://sipse.com/milenio/cenotes-hallazgos-arqueologicos-peninsula-de-yucatan-datos-hombre-americano-122310.html

par Gualterio Estrada Nunez
Il ya plusieurs années à visiter un magasin d’articles en provenance de Chine, ici à Sarasota, en Floride, nous vivons, nous avons découvert des livres d’art d’histoire les photographies ont été affichés sur les similitudes entre l’art précolombien du Mexique et de la Chine, maintenant nous lisons dans CRI en ligne (Radio Chine Internationale) http://espanol.cri.cn/782/2014/11/15/1s332432.htm les milieux universitaires du Mexique a estimé que la civilisation maya a été formé à partir d’une migration chinoise de deux mille ans http://espanol.cri.cn/782/2014/11/15/1s332432.htm. Le fait est que, avant cette date, les Mexicains ne ressemblera en rien le courant, selon laarqueologos.http://sipse.com/milenio/cenotes-hallazgos-arqueologicos-peninsula-de-yucatan-datos-hombre-americano-122310.html

por Gualterio Nunez Estrada
Vários anos atrás, visitando uma loja de itens da China, aqui em Sarasota, Flórida, onde vivemos, descobrimos os livros de história da arte, onde as fotografias foram exibidas nas semelhanças entre a arte pré-colombiana do México e da China, agora lemos no CRI on-line (China Radio International) http://espanol.cri.cn/782/2014/11/15/1s332432.htm os círculos acadêmicos do México considerou que a civilização maia foi formado a partir de uma migração chinesa de dois mil anos atrás http://espanol.cri.cn/782/2014/11/15/1s332432.htm. O fato é que, antes dessa data, os mexicanos não parece em nada com o atual, de acordo com oarqueologos.http://sipse.com/milenio/cenotes-hallazgos-arqueologicos-peninsula-de-yucatan-datos-hombre-americano-122310.html

Erdogan, el Presidente de Turquia afirma que musulmanes llegaron a Cuba en 1178

16 noviembre, 2014

Dice Erdogan que los contactos datan del siglo XII.

Dice Erdogan, Presidente de Turquia que los contactos datan del siglo XII.

Portotipo de la mezquita queTurquia quiere construir en Cuba.

Prototipo de la mezquita queTurquia quiere construir en Cuba.

Las afirmaciones del Presidente de Turquia de que los musulmanes llegaron a America, (posiblemente a Cuba) en el Siglo XII cuando pronunciaba un discurso ante lideres religiosos latinoamericanos  y que publica el diario turco “SUNDAYS ZAMAN”(1), segun “BBC MUNDO”” (2) carecen de pruebas a pesar de que el mandatario cito el diario de Cristobal Colon donde se dice haber visto una mezquita al descubrir a Cuba. 

The statements of the President of Turkey that Muslims came to America, (possibly Cuba) in the twelfth century as he gave a speech to Latin American religious leaders and published by the Turkish newspaper Zaman SUNDAYS” (1), according to “BBC World” “(2) lack of evidence despite the president cite journal where Christopher Columbus is said to have seen a mosque to discover Cuba.

Les déclarations du Président de la Turquie que les musulmans sont venus en Amérique, (éventuellement Cuba) au XIIe siècle comme il a prononcé un discours aux chefs religieux d’Amérique latine et publié par le journal turc «Zaman DIMANCHES(1), selon “BBC World” »(2) le manque de preuves malgré le président citant le journal Christophe Colomb aurait vu une mosquée à découvrir Cuba.

As declarações do Presidente da Turquia que os muçulmanos vieram para a América, (possivelmente Cuba) no século XII, quando ele fez um discurso para líderes religiosos latino-americanos e publicadas pelo jornal turco Zaman DOMINGOS(1), de acordo com a BBC World” (2) falta de provas, apesar de o presidente citar jornal onde Cristóvão Colombo disse ter visto uma mesquita para descobrir Cuba.

No obstante la controversia que se ha desatado en los medios de prensa, internacionaleshttps://www.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl#q=Cuba&tbm=nws , y pese  a que existe el interes religioso y  politico de construir una mezquita en Cuba, la influencia musulmana esta probada en la arquitectura colonial mudejar de la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba (1515)segun tesis del Dr. Prats Puigs,(3)que fuera profesor de Historia del Arte en la Universidad de Oriente (y a mi criterio, en la relacion de pareja, particularmente en esta ciudad, hasta hace pocos anos) Por supuesto que llaman la atencion las bases academicas del discurso de Erdogan(,4) segun las cuales Cristobal Colon siguio los pasos de los viajes que ya los musulmanes habrian hecho a America, segun mapas, documentos historicos y un libro de un profesor de Harvard.

(1)http://www.todayszaman.com/newsDetail.action;jsessionid=OPo8LCVnKzV0ibSAdw0CFFk-?newsId=364466&columnistId=0#

(2)http://www.bbc.co.uk/mundo/ultimas_noticias/2014/11/141115_ultnot_musulmanes_america_colon_jgc

(3)http://www.unionarabecuba.org/2014/fearabe100214s.html

(4)http://rt.com/news/205895-islam-america-erdogan-cuba/

PRECOLUMBIAN MUSLIMS IN THE AMERICAS
By: Dr. Youssef Mroueh

Preparatory Commitee for International Festivals to celebrate the millennium of the Muslims arrival to the Americas ( 996-1996 CE )

INTRODUCTION

Numerous evidence suggests that Muslims from Spain and West Africa arrived to the Americas at least five centuries before Columbus. It is recorded,for example, that in the mid-tenth century, during the rule of the Ummayyed Caliph Abdul-Rahman III (929-961 CE), Muslims
of African origin sailed westward from the Spanish port of DELBA (Palos) into the “Ocean of darkness and fog”. They returned after a long absence with much booty from a “strange and curious land”. It is evident that people of Muslim origin are known to have accompanied Columbus and subsequent Spanish explorers to the New World.

The last Muslim stronghold in Spain, Granada, fell to the Christians in 1492 CE, just before the Spanish inquisition was launched. To escape persecution, many non-Christians fled or embraced Catholicism. At least two documents imply the presence of Muslims in Spanish America before 1550 CE. Despite the fact that a decree issued in 1539 CE by Charles V, king of Spain, forbade the grandsons of Muslims who had been burned at the stake to migrate to
the West Indies. This decree was ratified in 1543 CE, and an order for the expulsion of all Muslims from overseas Spanish territories was subsequently published. Many references on the Muslim arrival to Americas are available. They are summarized in the following

A: HISTORIC DOCUMENTS:

1. A Muslim historian and geographer ABUL-HASSAN ALI IBN AL-HUSSAIN
AL-MASUDI (871-957 CE) wrote in his book Muruj adh-dhahab wa maadin
aljawhar
(The meadows of gold and quarries of jewels) that during
the rule of the Muslim caliph of Spain Abdullah Ibn Mohammad(888-912 CE), a Muslim navigator, Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad, from Cortoba, Spain sailed from Delba (Palos) in 889 CE, crossed the Atlantic, reached an unknown territory (ard majhoola) and returned with fabulous treasures. In Al-Masudi’s map of the world there is a large area in the ocean of darkness and fog which he referred to as the unknown territory (Americas).(1)

2. A Muslim historian ABU BAKR IBN UMAR AL-GUTIYYA narrated that during the reign of the Muslim caliph of Spain, Hisham II (976-1009CE), another Muslim navigator, Ibn Farrukh, from Granada, sailed from Kadesh (February 999CE) into the Atlantic, landed in Gando (Great Canary islands) visiting King Guanariga, and continued westward where he saw and named two islands, Capraria and Pluitana. He arrived back in Spain in May 999 CE.(2)

3. Columbus sailed from Palos (Delba), Spain. He was bound for GOMERA (Canary Islands)-Gomera is an Arabic word meaning ‘small firebrand’ – there he fell in love with Beatriz BOBADILLA, daughter of the first captain general of the island (the family name BOBADILLA is derived from the Arab Islamic name ABOU ABDILLA.).Nevertheless, the BOBADILLA clan was not easy to ignore. Another Bobadilla (Francisco) later, as the royal commissioner, put Columbus in chains and transferred him from Santo Dominigo back to
Spain (November 1500 CE). The BOBADILLA family was related to the ABBADID dynasty of Seville (1031-1091 CE). On October 12, 1492 CE, Columbus landed on a little island in the Bahamas that was called GUANAHANI by the natives. Renamed SAN SALVADOR by Columbus. GUANAHANI is derived from Mandinka and modified Arabic words. GUANA (IKHWANA) means ‘brothers’ and HANI is an Arabic name.Therefore the original name of the island was ‘HANI BROTHERS’. (11) Ferdinand Columbus, the son of Christopher, wrote about the blacks seen by his father in Handuras: “The people who live farther east of Pointe Cavinas, as far as Cape Gracios a Dios, are almost black in color.” At the same time, in this very same region, lived a tribe of Muslim natives known as ALMAMY. In Mandinka and Arabic languages, ALMAMY was the designation of “AL-IMAM”or “AL-IMAMU”, the leader of the prayer,or in some cases, the chief of the community,and/or a member of the Imami Muslim community. (12)

NOTES

4. A renowned American historian and linguist, LEO WEINER of Harvard University, in his book, AFRICA AND THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA (1920) wrote that Columbus was well aware of the Mandinka presence in the New World and that the West African Muslims had spread throughout the Caribbean, Central, South and North American territories, including Canada,where they were trading and intermarrying with the Iroquois and Algonquin Indians. (13)

B: GEOGRAPHIC EXPLORATIONS:

1. The famous Muslim geographer and cartographer AL-SHARIF AL-IDRISI (1099- 1166CE) wrote in his famous book Nuzhat al-mushtaq fi ikhtiraq al-afaq (Excursion of the longing one in crossing horizons) that a group of seafarers (from North Africa) sailed into the sea of darkness and fog (The Atlantic ocean) from Lisbon (Portugal), in order to discover what was in it and what extent were its limits. They finally reached an island that had people and cultivation…on the fourth day, a translator spoke to them in the Arabic language. (3)

2. The Muslim reference books mentioned a well-documented description of a journey across the sea of fog and darkness by Shaikh ZAYN EDDINE ALI BEN FADHEL AL-MAZANDARANI. His journey started from Tarfaya (South Morocco) during the reign of the King Abu-Yacoub Sidi Youssef (1286-1307CE) 6th of the Marinid dynasty, to Green Island in the Caribbean sea in 1291 CE (690 HE). The details of his ocean journey are mentioned in Islamic references, and many Muslim scholars are aware of this recorded historical event..(4)

3. The Muslim historian CHIHAB AD-DINE ABU-L-ABBAS AHMAD BEN FADHL AL-UMARI (1300-1384CE/700-786HE) described in detail the geographical explorations beyond the sea of fog and darkness of Mali’s sultans in his famous book Massaalik al-absaar fi mamaalik al-amsaar (The pathways of sights in the provinces of kingdoms).(5)

4. Sultan MANSU KANKAN MUSA (1312-1337 CE) was the world renowned Mandinka monarch of the West African Islamic empire of Mali. While travelling to Makkah on his famous Hajj in 1324 CE, he informed the scholars of the Mamluk Bahri sultan court (An-Nasir Nasir Edin Muhammad III-1309-1340 CE) in Cairo, that his brother, sultan Abu Bakari I (1285-1312CE) had undertaken two expeditions into the Atlantic Ocean. When the sultan did not return to Timbuktu from the second voyage of 1311 CE, Mansa Musa became sultan of the
empire. (6)

5. Columbus and early Spanish and portuguese explorers were able to voyage across the Atlantic (a distance of 2400 Km’s) thanks to Muslim geographical and navigational information. In particular maps made by Muslim traders, including AL-MASUDI (871-957CE) in his book Akhbar az-zaman (History of the world) which is based on material gathered in Africa and Asia (9). As a matter of fact, Columbus had two captain of muslim origin during his first transatlantic voyage: Martin Alonso Pinzon was the captain of the PINTA,and his brother Vicente Yanez Pinzon was the captain of the NINA. They were wealthy, expert ship outfitters who helped organize the Columbus expedition and prepared the flagship, SANTA MARIA. They did this at their own expense for both commercial and political reasons. The PINZON family was related to ABUZAYAN MUHAMMAD III (1362-66 CE), the Moroccan sultan of the Marinid dynasty (1196-1465CE). (10)

C: ARABIC ( ISLAMIC ) INSCRIPTIONS:

1. Anthropologists have proven that the Mandinkos under Mansa Musa’s instructions explored many parts of North America via the Mississippi and other rivers systems. At Four Corners, Arizona, writings show that they even brought elephants from Africa to the
area.(7)

2. Columbus admitted in his papers that on Monday, October 21,1492 CE while his ship was sailing near Gibara on the north-east coast of Cuba, he saw a mosque on top of a beautiful mountain. The ruins of mosques and minarets with inscriptions of Quranic verses have been discovered in Cuba,Mexico,Texas and Nevada. (8)

3. During his second voyage, Columbus was told by the indians of ESPANOLA (Haiti), that black people had been to the island before his arrival. For proof, they presented Columbus with the spears of these African muslims. These weapons were tipped with a yellow metal that the indians called GUANIN, a word of West African derivation meaning ‘gold alloy’. Oddly enough, it is related to the Arabic word ‘GHINAA’ which means ‘WEALTH’. Columbus brought some GUANINES back to Spain and had them tested. He learned that the metal was 18 parts gold (56.25%), 6 parts silver (18.75%) and 8 parts copper (25%), the same ratio as the metal produced in African metalshops of Guinea. (14)

4. In 1498 CE, on his third voyage to the new world, Columbus landed in Trinidad. Later, he sighted the South American continent, where some of his crew went ashore and found natives using colorful handkerchiefs of symmetrically woven cotton. Columbus noticed that these handkerchiefs resembled the headdresses and loinclothes of Guinea in their colors, style and function. He refered to them as ALMAYZARS. ALMAYZAR is an Arabic word for ‘wrapper’,’cover’,’apron’ and/or ‘skirting’ which was the cloth the Moors (Spanish or North African Muslims) imported from west Africa (Guinea) into Morocco, Spain and Portugal. During this voyage, Columbus was surprised that the married women wore cotton panties (bragas) and he wondered where these natives learned their modesty. Hernan Cortes, Spanish conqueror, described the dress of the Indian women as ‘long veils’ and the dress of Indian men as ‘breechcloth painted in the style of Moorish draperies’. Ferdinand Columbus called the native cotton garments ‘breechclothes of the same design and cloth as the shawls worn by the Moorish women of Granada’. Even the similarity of the children’s hammocks to those found in North Africa was uncanny.(15)

5. Dr. Barry Fell (Harvard University) introduced in his book ‘Saga America-1980′ solid scientific evidence supporting the arrival, centuries before Columbus, of Muslims from North and West Africa. Dr. Fell discovered the existence of the Muslim schools at Valley of Fire, Allan Springs, Logomarsino, Keyhole, Canyon, Washoe and Hickison Summit Pass (Nevada), Mesa Verde (Colorado), Mimbres Valley (New Mexico) and Tipper Canoe(Indiana) dating back to 700-800 CE. Engraved on rocks in the arid western U.S, he found texts, diagrams and charts representing the last surviving fragments of what was once a system of schools – at both an elementary and higher level. The language of instruction was North African Arabic written with old Kufic Arabic scripts. The subjects of instruction included writing, reading, arithmetic, religion, history, geography, mathematics, astronomy and sea navigation. The descendants of the Muslim visitors of North America are members of the present Iroquois, Algonquin, Anasazi, Hohokam and Olmec native people..(16)

6. There are 565 names of places (villages, towns, cities, mountains, lakes, rivers,.. etc. ) in U.S.A. (484) and Canada (81) which derived from Islamic and Arabic roots. These places were originally named by the natives in precolumbian periods. Some of these names carried holy meanings such as: Mecca-720 inhabitants (Indiana), Makkah Indian tribe (Washington), Medina-2100 (Idaho), Medina-8500 (N.Y.), Medina-1100, Hazen-5000 (North Dakota), Medina-17000/Medina-120000 (Ohio), Medina-1100 (Tennessee), Medina-26000 (Texas), Medina-1200 (Ontario), Mahomet-3200 (Illinois), Mona-1000 (Utah), Arva-700 (Ontario)…etc. A careful study of the names of the native Indian tribes revealed that many names are derived from Arab and Islamic roots and origins, i.e. Anasazi, Apache, Arawak, Arikana, Chavin, Cherokee, Cree, Hohokam, Hupa, Hopi, Makkah, Mahigan, Mohawk, Nazca, Zulu, Zuni…etc..

Based on the above historical, geographical and linguistic notes, a call to celebrate the millennium of the Muslim arrival to the Americas, five centuries before Columbus, has been issued to all Muslim nations and communities around the world. We hope that this call will receive complete understanding and attract enough support.

FOOTNOTES:

(1)See ref 4 (2)See ref. 9 (3)See ref. 3 (4)See ref. 1, 2 and 5
(5)See ref. 6 (6)See ref. 14 (7)See ref. 21 and 22 (8)See ref. 15
(9)See ref. 4 (10)See ref. 15 (11)See ref. 15 (12)See ref. 6
(13)See ref. 20 (14)See ref. 16 (15)See ref. 7 (16)See ref. 10& 12

REFERENCES:
1. AGHA HAKIM, AL-MIRZA Riyaadh Al-Ulama(Arabic),Vol.2 P.386/Vol.4 P.175
2. AL-AMEEN, SAYED MOHSIN Aayan Ash-Shia(Arabic),Vol.7 P.158/Vol 8
P.302-3
3. AL-IDRISSI Nuzhat Al-Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq Al-Afaaq(Arabic)
4. AL-MASUDI Muruj Adh-Dhahab (Arabic), Vol. 1, P. 138
5. AL-ASFAHANI, AR-RAGHIB Adharea Ila Makarim Ash-Shia,Vol.16,P.343
6. CAUVET, GILES Les Berbers de L’Amerique,Paris 1912,P.100-101
7. COLUMBUS, FERDINAND The Life of Admiral Christopher Columbus,Rutgers Univ.Press, 1959, P.232
8. DAVIES, NIGEL Voyagers to the New World,New York 1979
9. ON MANUEL OSUNAY SAVINON Resumen de la Geografia Fisica…,Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 1844
10. FELL,BARRY Saga America, New York 1980
11. FELL,BARRY America BC, New York 1976
12. GORDON,CYRUS Before Columbus,New York 1971
13. GYR,DONALD Exploring Rock Art,Santa Barbara 1989
14. HUYGHE,PATRICK Columbus was Last,New York 1992
15. OBREGON ,MAURICIO The Columbus Papers,The Barcelona Letter of 1493,
The Landfall Controversy, and the Indian Guides, McMillan Co.,New York 1991 16. THACHER,JOHN BOYD Christopher Columbus,New York 1950,P.380
17. VAN SETIMA,IVAN African Presence in Early America,New Brunswick,NJ
1987
18. VAN SETIMA,IVAN They Came Before Columbus,New York 1976
19. VON WUTHENAU,ALEX Unexpected Facts in Ancient America,New York 1975
20. WEINER,LEO Africa and the Discovery of America,Philadelphia, 1920,Vol.2 P.365-6
21. WILKINS,H..T. Mysteries of Ancient South America,New York 1974
22. WINTERS,CLYDE AHMAD Islam in Early North and South America

Espana, la investigacion cientifica y su impacto en America Latina.

15 noviembre, 2014

031014MesaConsejo

Spain, scientific research and its impact on Latin America.

Espagne, la recherche scientifique et son impact en Amérique latine

Cuando yo era joven, trabajaba en la Universidad de Oriente en Santiago de Cuba, nunca olvidare las largas discusiones y la busqueda de documentacion de Espana para cotejar, traducir, revisar y tener un criterio de lo verdadero en tesis cientificas procedentes de Rusia y Estados Unidos.
Mi experiencia de trabajo en la educacion superior de Cuba demostro, en mi consideracion, que un pais latinoamericano obligatoriamente tiene la necesidad de acudir a la colaboracion con las instituciones cientificas de Espana para poder asimilar y aplicar la documentacion cientifica extranjera y tener criterios en el cruce de informacion.
Traducir una tesis no es suficiente, se necesita un proceso de conocimiento y critica que solo se logra sobre la base de las instituciones de Espana.
Eso se demostro en las universidades de Cuba durante los anos de la colaboracion con Rusia y paises de Europa del Este.
Yo fui testigo de este proceso.
Por otro parte, existen “verdades universales” en Occidente que nunca han tenido un trabajo de campo fuera de paises ricos.
Consideramos que los recortes a las ciencias en Espana tendran un impacto negativo en las inversiones de tecnologia en America Latina, muy reducidas al presente.

Working at the Universidad de Oriente in Santiago de Cuba, I never forget the long discussions and the search for documentation from Spain to collate, translate, revise and have a criterion of truth in scientific theses from Russia and the United States .
My experience working in higher education in Cuba showed, in my consideration, that a Latin American  necessarily has the need to resort to the cooperation with scientific institutions in Spain to assimilate and apply foreign scientific documentation and have criteria at the crossroads of information.
Translate a thesis is not enough, a knowledge process is needed and criticizes only achieved on the basis of the institutions of Spain.
That was demonstrated in the universities of Cuba during the years of cooperation with Russia and countries in Eastern Europe.
I witnessed this process.
On the other hand, there are universal truths” in the West who have never had a field outside of rich countries.
We believe that the cuts to science in Spain will have a negative impact on investments in technology, very small at present in Latin America.

Quand je étais jeune, a travaillé à l’Université de Oriente à Santiago de Cuba, ne jamais oublier les longues discussions et la recherche de la documentation de l’Espagne à rassembler, traduire, réviser et avoir un critère de vérité dans les thèses scientifiques en provenance de Russie et des États-Unis .
Mon expérience de travail dans l’enseignement supérieur à Cuba a montré, à mon compte, que d’un pays d’Amérique latine a nécessairement besoin de recourir à la coopération avec des institutions scientifiques en Espagne à assimiler et appliquer la documentation scientifique étrangère et des critères à la croisée des chemins de l’information.
Traduire une thèse ne suffit pas, un processus de connaissance est nécessaire et critique atteint que sur la base des institutions de l’Espagne.
Cela a été démontré dans les universités de Cuba pendant les années de coopération avec la Russie et les pays d’Europe de l’Est.
Je fus témoin de ce processus.
D’autre part, il existe des “vérités universelles” de l’Ouest qui ont jamais eu un champ à l’extérieur des pays riches.
Nous croyons que les réductions à la science en Espagne auront un impact négatif sur les investissements dans la technologie, très faible à l’heure actuelle en Amérique latine.

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Poésie et mathématiques de l’identité caribéenne.

10 noviembre, 2014

por Gualterio Nunez Estrada.

À la fin de 1977, le travail au sein du ministère de l’enseignement supérieur de Cuba comme un écrivain de la programmation scientifique et le film conférencier, a rencontré dans le Système national de réaménagement de l’éducation en vue de la possibilité d’une course à l’espace avec la Russie, les élèves qui avaient eu d’excellents résultats en troisième année ont réussi en mathématiques dans les cours universitaires. Bien que Cuba avait répété tout didactique des mathématiques, académiquement les résultats escomptés ne sont pas atteints. A cette époque, de nombreux éducateurs ont indiqué que de bonnes bases en troisième année était essentiel dans le processus éducatif au collège et cela me fait conjecturer que la formation du modèle mental de la pensée mathématique chez les élèves est établie à partir de la lecture et la compréhension de la poésie.

Théoriquement les métaphores poétiques concernant l’identité des codes de zone des Caraïbes qui ont pour champs sémantiques gravitent vers des contextes historiques qui sont dans l’inconscient à travers la tradition orale, les tabous de tribu et de l’éducation sur la nationalité et l’identité de zone. Par exemple, nous citons les processus historiques qui sont devenus zone de contextes politiques comme La Noche Triste Hernan Cortez», qui représente la possibilité d’une défaite des envahisseurs coloniaux et Révolution haïtienne” avec la défaite des troupes d’élite de Napoléon établir des conceptions physiques du temps et de l’espace dans l’esprit de la compréhension du lecteur de la Caraïbe au cours de la poésie de Caribena, que ce soit en espagnol, anglais ou français, d’autant plus que les deux poètes et leur public, à la langue de l’inconscient est le poème, la recherche de l’ascension spirituelle par l’action affirmative. Pour citer un domaine de paradigmes, en espagnol, nous pouvons voir ce processus dans Luis Pales Matos poésie (Puerto Rico), Nicolas Guillen (Cuba) et Victor Villegas (République dominicaine) (1)

Qu’est-ce qui me rassure pense à mes remarques précédentes sur une théorie de la conception physique et mathématique dans la lecture de l’identité de zone qui décide du comportement d’une théorie possible de la langue et des mathématiques sur la base de la compréhension de la lecture et particulièrement la poésie comme modélisateurs historiques pensée physique et mathématique dans la région des Caraïbes, semblent être corroborées, ou quelque chose doit être étudiée dans une étude d’un philologue américain (Langue: l’outil culturel par Daniel Everett) qui a constaté que la tribu Pirana Amazon un (très heureux) dans cette communauté indigène qui vit seul, Siffler la plupart des conversations, parlent toujours dans des phrases directes, a un concept mathématique qui est pas plus que beaucoup ou un peu,” avoir aucune notion de distance deux, trois ou même cinq ans. En outre, contrairement à ce que beaucoup pensent sur l’être humain, ont absolument aucune notion de Dieu ou conçu cette idée, mais essayer de les enseigner, ne comprennent pas, ou mythes, ou croit aux fantômes ou la vie après la mort.
Cette question a opposé adeptes linguistes Noam école Chomsky.sobre Grammaire Universelle avec ce professeur démontrant contrario.de ce qu’on croit et ce que cette rubrique est incluse dans la revue de l’enseignement supérieur en Amérique, The Chronicle ? dans l’article” Angry Words Est-ce que la découverte de l’un chercheur fond de l’Amazonie détruire les bases de la linguistique moderne »de Tom Bartlett Voir référence: http://chronicle.com/article/Researchers-Findings-in-the/131260/

(1) http://www.worldcat.org/title/ensayos-sobre-la-poesia-de-victor-villegas/oclc/4545638696353bc1f78a021d50abbf2895e6ff56

Poetry and Mathematic in the caribbean area identity.

10 noviembre, 2014

Victor Villegas, poeta dominicano.Victor Villegas, poeta dominicano.

by Gualterio Nunez Estrada

In late 1977, working in the Ministry of Higher Education of Cuba as a writer of scientific programming and film lecturer, met in the redeveloped National System of Education with a view to the possibility of a space race with Russia, students who had had excellent results in third grade were successful in mathematics in university courses. While in Cuba had rehearsed all didactic of mathematics, academically the expected results were not achieved. At that time, many educators indicated that a good foundation in the third grade was essential in the educational process to college and this made me conjecture that the formation of the mental model of mathematical thinking in students is established from Reading and understanding of poetry.

Theoretically speaking the poetic metaphors concerning the identity of Caribbean area codes that have as semantic fields gravitate towards historical contexts that are in the subconscious through the oral tradition, taboos of tibu and education on the nationality and identity of area. For example, we cite historical processes that have become political contexts area as “La Noche Triste Hernan Cortez,” which represents the possibility of a defeat of the colonial invaders and Haitian Revolutionwith the defeat of the elite troops of Napoleon establish physical designs of the time and space in the mind of the reader‘s understanding of the Caribbean during the caribena poetry, whether in Spanish, English or French, especially since both poets and their audience, from the language of the unconscious is the poem, seeking spiritual ascent through affirmative action. To cite some paradigms area, in Spanish, we can see this process in Luis Pales Matos poetry (Puerto Rico), Nicolas Guillen (Cuba) and Victor Villegas (Dominican Republic) (1)

What reassures me think of my earlier remarks on a theory of physical and mathematical concept in reading through the area identity that decides the behavior of a possible theory of language and mathematics on the basis of reading comprehension and particularly poetry as historical modelers physical and mathematical thinking in the Caribbean area, seem to be corroborated, or something needs to be investigated in a study of an American doctor of sciences (Language: the Cultural Tool by Daniel Everett) who found that the tribe Pirana Amazon (very happy) in this indigenous community that lives alone, whistling most conversations, always speak in direct sentences, has a mathematical concept that is no more than a lot or a little,” are not even remotely concept of two, three or even five. Moreover, contrary to what many think about the human being, have absolutely no concept of God or conceived this idea but try to teach them, do not understand, or myths, or believed in ghosts or life after death.This Issue has pitted supporters of the school linguists Noam Chomsky, his concept of Universal Grammar with this teacher seems to demonstrate that it is not a universal truth, and this topic is included in the journal of higher education in America “the Chronicle in the article” Angry Words Will one researcher’s discovery deep in the Amazon destroy the foundation of modern linguistics? By Tom Bartlett View reference: http://chronicle.com/article/Researchers-Findings-in-the/131260/

(1) http://www.worldcat.org/title/ensayos-sobre-la-poesia-de-victor-villegas/oclc/45456386

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La poesia (lectura) parece ser la base del conocimiento matematico en el educando.

10 noviembre, 2014

Feria del Libro en La Habana.

FERIA DEL LIBRO EN LA HABANA, CUBA.

por Gualterio Nunez Estrada

A fines de 1977, trabajando en el Ministerio de Educacion Superior de Cuba como escritor de programacion cientifica y conferencista de cine, conoci que en la restructuracion del Sistema Nacional de Educacion con vistas a la posibilidad de una Carrera Espacial con Rusia, los alumnos que habian tenido excelentes resultados en tercer grado de primaria eran exitosos en matematica en las carreras universitarias. Pese a que en Cuba se habian ensayado todas las didacticas de las matematicas, academicamente no se lograron los resultados que se esperaban. En aquel momento, muchos educadores senalaban que una buena base en el tercer grado de primaria era fundamental en el proceso educativo hacia la universidad y esto me hizo conjeturar que la formacion del modelo mental del pensamiento matematico en el educando se establece a partir de la Lectura y la comprension de la poesia.

Teoricamente hablando las metaforas poeticas referidas a la identidad de area Caribe poseen codigos que gravitan como campos semanticos hacia contextos historicos que estan en el subconciente a traves de la tradicion oral, los tabues de tribu y la educacion en la nacionalidad y la identidad de area. Por ejemplo,citamos procesos historicos que se han vuelto contextos politicos de area como “La Noche Triste de Hernan Cortez”, que representa la posibilidad de una derrota del invasor colonial y la “Revolucion de Haiti” con la derrota de las tropas elites de Napoleon, establecen disenos fisicos de tiempo y espacio en la mente del lector del Caribe durante la comprension de la poesia caribena, sea en espanol, ingles o frances, sobre todo porque tanto los poetas como su publico, a partir de este lenguaje del inconciente que es el poema, buscan el ascenso espiritual a traves de la accion afirmativa. Por citar algunos paradigmas de area, en espanol, podemos ver este proceso en la poesia de Luis Pales Matos (Puerto Rico), Nicolas Guillen (Cuba) y Victor Villegas (Republica Dominicana) (1)

Lo que me reafirma pensar en mis consideraciones anteriores sobre una teoria del concepto fisico y matematico en la Lectura a traves de la identidad de area que decide el comportamiento, sobre una posible teoria del lenguaje y las matematicas en la base de comprension de la lectura y particularmente la poesia como modeladores historicos del pensamiento fisico y matematico en el area Caribe, parecen corroborarse, o algo hay por investigar, en un estudio de un doctor en ciencias norteamericano (Language: The Cultural Tool by Daniel Everett ) que encontro que la tribu Pirana del Amazonas, una comunidad indigena que solo vive,( muy feliz ) en el presente, silba la mayoria de las conversaciones, siempre hablan en oraciones directas, tiene un concepto de matematicas que no pasa de “mucho o poco”, no tienen ni remotamente concepto de dos, tres o siquiera cinco. Ademas, contrario a lo que muchos piensan sobre el ser humano, no tienen en absoluto concepto de Dios, ni conciben esta idea aunque se les intente ensenar, no la comprenden, ni mitos, ni creian en fantasmas o vida despues de la muerte.Este problema ha enfrentado a los linguistas seguidores de la escuela de Noam Chomsky.sobre la Gramatica Universal con este profesor que demuestra lo contrario.de lo que se cree y se recoge esta discusion en la revista de la educacion superior de Estados Unidos “The Chronicle” en el articulo “Angry Words Will one researcher’s discovery deep in the Amazon destroy the foundation of modern linguistics?” By Tom Bartlett Ver referencia en: http://chronicle.com/article/Researchers-Findings-in-the/131260/

(1) http://www.worldcat.org/title/ensayos-sobre-la-poesia-de-victor-villegas/oclc/45456386

Cuba a le cancer du poumon vaccin remplaçant la chimiothérapie et à la radio.

9 noviembre, 2014

Oh, génial, Cuba a le cancer du poumon vaccin remplaçant chimio et radio.

 RACOTUMOMAB (VAXIRA),

RACOTUMOMAB (VAXIRA),


Hier, je lisais le journal «Granma»,(http://www.granma.cu/ciencia/2014-11-07/el-reto-de-convertirlo-en-enfermedad-cronica) publié à La Havane et je fus surpris les nouvelles que Cuba applique un vaccin par injection intradermique qui remplace le traitement de chimio et radio dans certains cas de patients atteints de cancer du poumon, un vaccin les laboratoires produisent aussi en Argentine( http://www.vaxira.com/eng/vaxira.php ) et apparaît également sur une page du système de santé aux Etats-Unis (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01460472 …Gualterio Nunez Estrada, Sarasota, Florida...

 ClinicalTrials.gov

A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
CIMAB (Cuba)
Laboratorio Elea S.A.C.I.F. y A.
Innogene Kalbiotech Pte. Ltd
Eurofarma Laboratorios S.A.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Recombio SL

Cuba develops vaccine against lung cancer replacing chemo and radio.

9 noviembre, 2014

Representation of the trisaccharide structure of a NeuGcGM3 ganglioside and its expression in tumor cells.

Representation of the trisaccharide structure of a NeuGcGM3 ganglioside and its expression in tumor cells.

“The most recent is RACOTUMOMAB (VAXIRA), and was approved in 2012 for use by today Center for State Control of drugs, equipment, and medical devices (CEDMED).(CUBA)

Administered intradermally, this does not cause the unpleasant side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which allows to make long-lasting treatments in elderly patients, who when they have a pulmonary carcinoma sometimes are not eligible to receive cytostatic.

Its security makes it easy to apply it to the primary health care level, called to be the future scenario of the therapeutic action against cancer, if finally the scientific advances come true the dream of turning it

into a disease that can live long in acceptable physical conditions.”

The Idiotypic Network hypothesis The Idiotypic Network hypothesis

 Racotumomab acts as a surrogate antigen Thus, when administered intradermally, Racotumomab acts as a surrogate antigen and activates the immune system to generate a specific response against tumor cells expressing the NeuGcGM3 ganglioside on their surface.

Simplified model showing the mechanism of action of Vaxira®

Source:http://www.granma.cu/ciencia/2014-11-07/el-reto-de-convertirlo-en-enfermedad-cronica

Argentina source:http://www.vaxira.com/eng/vaxira.php

ClinicalTrials.gov

A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health
http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01460472

Cuba contra el cancer de pulmon.

9 noviembre, 2014

Doctor Agustín Lage Dávila, director del Centro de Inmunología Molecular Foto: Yaimí Ravelo. "Granma"

Doctor Agustín Lage Dávila, director del Centro de Inmunología Molecular Foto: Yaimí Ravelo. “Granma”

Lung cancer

http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT01460472
This study is currently recruiting participants. (see Contacts and Locations)
Verified May 2014 by Recombio SL
Sponsor:
Recombio SL
Collaborators:
CIMAB (Cuba)
Laboratorio Elea S.A.C.I.F. y A.
Innogene Kalbiotech Pte. Ltd
Eurofarma Laboratorios S.A.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Recombio SL

Leyendo el diario cubano “Granma” tuvimos noticia en un reportaje sobre avances medicos en la lucha contra el cancer y las politicas  globales del tratamiento del cancer en paises pobres como es el caso de Haiti y otros de mediano desarrollo,  que Cuba ha concretado la aplicacion de un medicamento anticancer de pulmon (Referencia clinica: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01460472 ) (1) que no produce los desagradables efectos de la quimio y la radio, segun “Granma” y de lo que se ha publicado sobre el tema cito un fragmento a continuacion debido a su trascendencia en cuanto a nuevos recursos farmaceuticos se refiere:: “También resalta la obtención y validación por la autoridad regulatoria nacional de dos vacunas terapéuticas contra el cáncer de pulmón avanzado de células no pequeñas, el más mortífero y frecuente de los tumores malignos de tan vital órgano.

“La más reciente es RACOTUMOMAB (VAXIRA), y fue aprobada en el 2012 para su empleo por el hoy Centro pa­ra el Control Estatal de Medicamentos, Equipos y Dispo­si­tivos Médicos (CEDMED).

Administrada por vía intradérmica, esta no provoca los desagradables efectos secundarios de la quimioterapia y la radioterapia, lo cual permite hacer tratamientos duraderos hasta en pacientes ancianos, que cuando tienen un carcinoma pulmonar en ocasiones no son elegibles para recibir citostáticos.

Su seguridad facilita aplicarla en el nivel de atención primaria de salud, llamado a ser el escenario futuro fundamental de la acción terapéutica contra el cáncer, si por fin los avances científicos hacen realidad el sueño de convertirlo en una enfermedad con la que podamos vivir mucho tiempo en condiciones físicas aceptables.”

Contenido relacionado:  Clinical Trials Overview in Lung Cancer in Holguin Province:

Correo Científico Médico

versión ISSN 1560-4381

CCM vol.17 no.4 Holguín oct.-.-dic. 2013

 Odette Martínez Batista 1, Mirtha Moreno Infante 2

1. Especialista de Primer Grado en Oncología. Instructora. Centro Oncológico Provincial Holguín. Hospital Vladimir Ilich Lenin. Holguín. Cuba.
2. Máster en Atención Integral a la Mujer. Especialista de Primer Grado en Medicina General Integral. Instructora. Dirección Provincial de Salud. Holguín. Cuba.

http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1560-43812013000400001&nrm=iso

FUENTE:http://www.granma.cu/ciencia/2014-11-07/el-reto-de-convertirlo-en-enfermedad-cronica

About Study Results Reporting on ClinicalTrials.gov (1)

  Study Status: This study is currently recruiting participants.
  Estimated Study Completion Date: September 2015
  Estimated Primary Completion Date: September 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Cuba amplia el uso de biosensores en la atencion universal de la diabetes.

26 octubre, 2014

f0014776

En Cuba el diabetico es atendido por equipos medicos interdisciplinarios entre los que se incluyen los sicologos y los grupos comunitarios dirigidos por medicos, ahora con la produccion nacional de biosensores esta atencion se amplia en recursos tecnologicos como se aprecia en la informacion siguiente:

La tiras reactivas para medir glucosa en orina con 50 determinaciones, se venderán a la población en las farmacias comunitarias a diez CUP, informa el diario Granma.
El diario cita la Resolución No. 390/2014 del Ministerio de Finanzas y Precios, publicada en la Gaceta Oficial Extraordinaria No. 41, que establece el precio del aditamento.
Las tiras o biosensores constituyen un medio de diagnóstico rápido y eficaz que permite conocer los niveles de azúcar en el organismo sin la asistencia de un profesional de la salud.
Cuba inauguró recientemente una Planta de Producción de Biosensores, que permitirá producir las tiras reactivas que necesita todas las personas con diabetes del país, unos 800 000 cubanos diagnosticados con la enfermedad.
Esta fábrica se beneficia de la transferencia de tecnología, la primera que tiene lugar en Cuba en el sector de la ingeniería biomédica, tras un acuerdo comercial que selló las relaciones entre el Centro de Inmunoensayo (CIE)  y la empresa china Changsha SINOCARE Inc..

Con este convenio, se están beneficiando desde hace varios años todos los diabéticos tipo 1 -los insulino dependientes- y la población más vulnerable, niños y embarazadas.

http://www.cubadebate.cu/noticias/2014/09/24/a-la-venta-en-cuba-tiras-reactivas-para-medir-glucosa-en-sangre/


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